The History of the Rulership of the Muslim World

The history of Muslim rule spans beyond just a few decades or a few centuries, rather it spans over approximately 1431 years to reach its end in 1924. The year 1924 signified the end of the Second Uthmaniyah Khilafah (Ottoman Turkish Empire) and the break-up of Muslim lands into nation-states under either dictatorship or democratic forms of rule.

The expanse of Muslim rule over 1431 years covered the Andalusian peninsula and reached beyond the far east. Since the demise of the Second Uthmaniyah Khilafah there had been no Muslim rule on the earth, until 2009 when a declaration had been made in Syria.

The years between 2009 and 2014 saw the rise of a form of Islamic rule in Syria. This form of Islamic rule was however met with much dismay and had been totally disregarded by many of the scholars of the time. This Islamic rule was however accepted by a few who saw this as the long-awaited Khilafah before the term of 100 years had expired.

 

The Ahadith of  Four Epochs stated by Rasulallah Sallallahu alayhi wasalam

 Ḥudhayfa b. al-Yamān Radiallahu anhu reported that Rasulallah Sallallahu alayhi wasalam said,

“Prophethood will remain amongst you for as long as Allah wishes. Then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it, and there will be a caliphate upon the prophetic methodology. It will last for as long as Allah wishes it to last, then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it.

Then there will be an abiding dynasty, and it will remain for as long as Allah wishes it to remain. Then Allah will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it.

Then there will be tyrannical (forceful) kingship, and it will remain for as long as Allah wishes it to remain. Then He will remove it whenever He wishes to remove it, and

then there will be a caliphate upon the prophetic methodology.”

Source: Collected by Aḥmad (18406);

Grade: Deemed ḥasan by al-Arna’ūṭ, and “at least ḥasan” by al-Albāni in as-Silsila aṣ-Ṣaḥīḥa (5)

 

The Four Epochs

Rasulallah Sallalahu alayhi wasalam mentions four different epochs under which Muslims will experience different forms of rule.

 

1 – Khilafah Minhaaj aNubuwa

First, it had been rule according to prophetic methodology (Khilafah Minhaaj aNubuwa), ten of which would be under the rule by Rasulallah Sallalahu alayhi wasallam. the remaining thirty would be under the four Khulafah (Khilafah Rasheedah).

 

2 – Dynastic Rule

Secondly, rule in the form of dynastic rule, and this we have seen with the Umayyad, Abbasid, Second Uthmaniyah Khilafah (Ottoman Turkish Empire).

 

3 – Dictatorship

Thirdly, rule in the form of dictatorship, which we have seen by the prevalence of created nation-states in Muslim lands around the Meditteranean, after the break up of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.

 

4 – Khilafah Minhaaj aNubuwa

Fourthly, the return of rule according to the prophetic methodology after these prior epochs have run their course.

 

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