And it is He Who produces gardens trellised and untrellised, and date-palms,
and crops of different shape and taste (its fruits and its seeds) and olives, and pomegranates,
similar (in kind) and different (in taste). Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (its Zakat,
according to Allah’s Orders 1/10th or 1/20th) on the day of its harvest, and waste not by extravagance .
Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance),
What is Zakaat-al-Maal
Zakat-al-maal is a form of a charity (sadaqah). The compulsory nature, however, changes this from the voluntary charity, (sadaqah) to zakat a compulsory charity. It is, however, different from other types of compulsory charities (e.g. Zakat-al-Fitr) as the; rationale, form, and measure differ.
Zakat-al-maal is levied upon one’s wealth, what one possesses or what one is owed which is due and is expected to be paid. There is a range of assets upon which zakat is payable and the percentages would differ depending upon the type of asset.
Who is eligible to receive Zakaah
There are eight types of people who are eligible to receive zakah;
- The poor (Fuqara)
- The Orphan (Al- Masakin)
- Those who administer the zakaah funds
- Those who are on the verge of accepting Islam as their religion
- Those who are imprisoned and require being ransomed.
- Those who are in debt
- Those who are in the cause of Allah subhana wa taala
- The Traveller
Surah aTawbah 9:60
As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakat) are only for the Fuqara’ (poor), and Al-Masakin (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah’s Cause (i.e. for Mujahidun – those fighting in the holy wars), and for the wayfarer (a traveller who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.
Who is due to pay zakat?
The determinant factor of whom is liable to pay zakat is dependent on the nisaab amount.
Nisaab is the minimum amount that a person is required to possess over a Hijri year in order to become liable for zakat. The nisaab amount does, however, fluctuate over time, thus it is required that the nisaab amount is obtained in order to determine whether one falls below or above this threshold. If one falls above the threshold then zakat is payable by such person. If one falls below the threshold then such person is eligible to receive zakat.
Rasulallah Sallallahu alayhi wasalam said:
“No Zakah is payable in less than five Wasaqs of dates or grain.”
[One Wasaq is 60 sa’a of dates (wheat and grains of its like)]
[One Sa’a is four mahd (four of hand cupfuls)]
The general rule for the percentage to be levied on capital assets is 2.5%.
Certain specific assets may, however, levy a different percentage as they would differ in nature and form. This percentage would range between 2.5% and 20%.
Ali ibn Abi Talib reported:
Rasulallah Sallallahu alayhi wasalam said,
“If you have two hundred silver coins and a year has passed, five coins are due for alms.
You will owe nothing until you own twenty gold coins.
If you own twenty gold coins and a year has passed, half of a coin is due for alms.
Whatever is extra should be calculated likewise.”
Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 1572
Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani
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